2017counter for years (following a number in the hito-futa-mi counting system)7In May, the Nuclear Weapons Convention was adopted at the United Nations General Assembly.122In favor of the countriesvoteThe nuclear weapons are "the most powerful weapons in the world". Nuclear weapons are "theindiscriminate killing weaponThe Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC) is a treaty that bans the development, possession, and use of nuclear weapons without exception. The Nuclear Weapons Convention is a treaty that bans the development, possession, and use of nuclear weapons without exception, and is a step further and more comprehensive than previous treaties restricting nuclear weapons. And2022counter for years (following a number in the hito-futa-mi counting system)6In May, the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to this Convention was held inholding a meetingThe meeting of the Parties was held at the For the Conference of the Parties,49Not only the Contracting Parties of the34of the non-party states participated as observers. However, many of the nuclear weapon states such as the U.S. and Russia, as well as countries under the U.S. nuclear umbrella, did not participate in this treaty or in this conference.
There is one region that is actively participating in the Nuclear Weapons Convention. They are the Pacific island nations. Fiji, Kiribati, Palau, Samoa, and all other Pacific island nations14.. countries all over the world10 countrieshave ratified or acceded to the Convention. Other countries have not ratified the Convention, but have participated as observers in the Conference of the Parties. Why is there such a strong commitment to the Convention among Pacific nations? One reason is the history of large-scale nuclear testing in the region.
This article will provide an overall overview of nuclear testing, details of nuclear testing in Pacific Island countries, and the damage that continues to be done and efforts to address it.
Overview of Nuclear Tests
The earliest nuclear weapons were created during World War II.1945.The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and other Allied nations developed and manufactured the technology to counter the Axis powers. The United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and other Allied nations mobilized all their scientists to develop and manufacture nuclear weapons to counter the Axis powers such as Germany, Italy, and Japan. Nuclear weapons use nuclear fission, which occurs when neutrons collide with elements such as uranium.useThe energy released by nuclear fission reaches tens of millions of degrees Celsius. The energy released by nuclear fission reaches approximately tens of millions of degrees Celsius, and its destructive power extends over an area several kilometers in diameter, making it an order of magnitude more powerful than conventional explosives. In fact1945When a nuclear bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in 1945,diameter6kilometerThe damage to the area of approximately 1.5 million square meters and approximately1410,000 people died, and in Nagasaki, the damage wasdiameter7kilometerand approximately in the range of710,000 people died.
Because of the advanced science and technology of nuclear fission, the development of new nuclear weapons requires that nuclear tests be conducted to study their function and effects. Nuclear testing is largely4 typesThey can be classified into three categories: atmospheric nuclear tests, exo-atmospheric nuclear tests, underwater nuclear tests, and underground nuclear tests, respectively. Atmospheric nuclear tests can be conducted on the ground or dropped from an aircraft. When an explosion occurs, sediment and dust are blown up, and large amounts of ash and other radioactive fallout are generated. Extra-atmospheric nuclear tests are conducted using rockets, the purpose of which is to verify the destruction of enemy satellites, among other things. Large quantities ofspace debrisThe electromagnetic pulse generated by the explosion affects electronic equipment on the ground. Underwater nuclear tests are conducted by suspending a nuclear bomb from a ship into the water and detonating it. Radioactive water disperses and contaminates the surrounding area. Underground nuclear tests, if successful, do not produce radioactive fallout, but ground subsidence occurs after the explosion, and if the explosion creates a hole in the ground, a large amount of radioactive material leaks out.
Next, each country's nuclear testsHistoryWe will look at the following The United States,1945Since the year1992over the course of the year1,030The company conducted two nuclear tests.1945counter for years (following a number in the hito-futa-mi counting system)7In May, it conducted the world's first nuclear test, the Trinity test, in New Mexico, and has since conducted tests in other states and in the Marshall Islands and Kiribati in the Pacific Ocean. The Soviet Union,1949 Since the year 1990 over the course of the year 715 Conducted nuclear tests twice. Many nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.Gone.Other sporadic experiments have been conducted in various parts of Russia. France has1960Since the year1996through the year 2000.210The first two nuclear tests were conducted in Algeria, which was a colony. At first, nuclear tests were conducted in Algeria, which was a colony, but after Algeria gained independence, the testing site was moved to French Polynesia. The British conducted a total of45It has conducted two nuclear tests, mainly in Australia and Kiribati. China has45It conducted two nuclear tests, with the northwestern part of the country being the main test site. North Korea has conducted a total of6conducted three nuclear tests, all of which were2000It has been implemented since 2006. India is a member of the3conducted two nuclear tests, and Pakistan conducted2It has conducted two nuclear tests. South Africa, which has abandoned its nuclear weapons development program, and Israel, which is believed to possess nuclear weapons, have also conducted nuclear tests in the pastseemThe following is a list of the most common problems with the
Next, we will look at the movement to limit experimentation.1963years, among other countries such as the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom.partial test ban treatywas signed, banning all nuclear testing except for underground nuclear testing. France and China have not joined this treaty. The purpose of the treaty is said to be to prohibit atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests and to prevent environmental contamination by radiation. However, the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom had the technology for underground nuclear tests at the time, and could continue to conduct such tests even after the treaty was concluded, while France and China did not.doubtThere are also1996In 2006, it also banned underground nuclear testing.CTBTThe United States, China, and other countries have not ratified the treaty, and it has not yet entered into force. Most countries have not conducted nuclear tests, but this is due to the fact that computer simulations of nuclear tests have become possible as a result of technological development.backgroundThere also seems to be a
This overview of nuclear testing shows that many nuclear tests were conducted in Pacific Island countries. In actual numbers,1946United States, England, and France between 1949 and the present.3depending on the country315 timesNuclear tests have been conducted in the region. As mentioned earlier, colonies of high-income countries such as the Marshall Islands, French Polynesia, and Kiribati have been the main nuclear test sites and have suffered tremendous damage from the tests. Below, we will discuss in detail the particularly large-scale U.S. nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands and the French nuclear tests in French Polynesia.
the Marshall Islands
the Marshall Islandsschool (e.g. of ikebana)1,200 It consists of more than 1,000 islands, which were originally uninhabited.1Around the 19th century, people began migrating from Micronesia and18Around the 19th century, people from Britain, Germany, and other powerful countries began to settle in the area.1886It became a German protectorate in 1949, and after World War I1920It became a mandate territory of Japan in 1949. During World War II, it was used militarily as a fortress, and after the war it was ruled by the United States as a trust territory.1986When we gained our independence in 1949, we had an agreement with the U.S. calledFTAThe U.S. signed an agreement with the Marshall Islands in 1976. The agreement provides that the U.S. will continue to have defense and security jurisdiction over the Marshall Islands in exchange for U.S. financial assistance to the islands.
1946Since the year1958By the year 2000, the United States was in the Marshall Islands.67 timesThe nuclear tests were conducted mainly at the Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls. The tests were conducted primarily at the Bikini Atoll and Eniwetok Atoll nuclear test sites, where both atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests were conducted. The total explosion energy during the tests was108.5Megatons (note 1in the territory of the Marshall Islands.More than 2,000Radiation fell on the islands and areas of of radiation.affectThe nuclear tests caused burns, birth defects, cancer, and other health problems throughout the Marshall Islands, and also had an environmental impact, including the destruction of coral reefs in the area where the nuclear tests were carried out.
1946Since the year1958During the test period, the residents of Bikini Atoll and Eniwetok Atoll were forcibly relocated to uninhabited islands such as Rongerik Atoll and Kili Island.Bikini AtollRegarding,1968A sufficient decrease in radiation levels was declared by the U.S. authorities in 2006,1972Islanders in 2006100About two hundred people returned to the island. However, a later survey revealed that high levels of radiation remained, and the islanders1978The islanders were re-evacuated in 1964. The islanders of Bikini Atoll have yet to return to their islands.Eniwetok Atollschool (e.g. of ikebana)1977Decontamination work has been underway since 2006,1980In 2006, the western side of the atoll was declared safe and islanders returned to their homes, but radiation still remains in some areas.
As a particularly damaging experiment,1954Implemented in 2006.The Castle Bravo Experimentare mentioned. This was an atmospheric nuclear test, and the explosion energy was15The ash fallout reached megatons. The test on Bikini Atoll resulted in ash falling on unforeseen areas such as Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, and the island residents were exposed to radiation because they had been informed of the test in advance but had not been evacuated. It is possible that the U.S. intentionally caused the damage for the purpose of human experimentation.pointing outThe Daigo Fukuryu Maru, a Japanese fishing boat, was also exposed to radiation while sailing around Rongelap Island. A Japanese fishing boat, the Daigo Fukuryu Maru, was also exposed to radiation while sailing around Rongelap Island. In addition, soldiers involved in the tests and U.S. Navy vessels were also damaged.reportThe first time the company was founded, it was a small company.
Hibakusha have experienced health problems such as itching and vomiting, and many cases of thyroid cancer and other cancers have been reported decades after the bombings. The National Cancer Institute in the U.S.2010According to a survey conducted in 2006, cancers occurring on the island of Rongelapabout55%is said to be the one caused by the fallout from the Castle Bravo test. In terms of the environment, coral reefs and the ecosystems they maintained were destroyed. He said that radioactive contaminants still remain on Rongelap Island.seemingThe islanders still have not been able to return to the island.
2017In 1964, the Marshall Islands initially voted in favor of the adoption of the Nuclear Weapons Convention at the United Nations, but its ratification of the treaty by its Parliament would violate the Free Association Agreement with the United States, and the Marshall Islands was not able to ratify the treaty.concernThe treaty was rejected and was not ratified. However2022As a country affected by nuclear tests, the country participated as an observer in the Conference of the Parties in 2006 in order to keep an eye on what kind of support measures would be proposed for the victims.
French Polynesiaschool (e.g. of ikebana)118It consists of the islands of67The islands of the Societe Islands are inhabited, while the others are uninhabited. This region, including the Societe Islands, was originally ruled by the Pomare dynasty,1844It became a French protectorate in 1949, followed by1881It was annexed to the country in 1949. After World War II1946In 1949, it became an overseas territory of France and was given the right to establish a local council and also to elect a few representatives to the French National Assembly. Although it has had some partial autonomy since then, it has never achieved complete independence.
1966Since the year1996In the years leading up to 1949, France was in French Polynesia.193 timesThe nuclear tests were carried out mainly at the nuclear test sites at Moruroa and Fangataufa Atolls. The tests were conducted primarily at the nuclear test sites at Moruroa and Fangataufa Atolls, and included not only atmospheric nuclear tests but also underground tests. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), radiation was detected not only in Moruroa and Fangataufa Atolls, where the tests were conducted, and in Tureia Atoll, which was evacuated as a danger zone, but also in Tahiti Island.diffusionThe tests were carried out in the early 1960s, and many people were exposed to radiation. The long-running tests exposed an estimated population of almost the entire population of French Polynesia to the110,000 peoplewere apparently exposed to radiation. However, France has been covering up the radiation levels andIt's been said.Interpret, a British research firm, and Princeton University in the U.S. jointly conducted thesurveyBy,2006The French authorities indicated in 2006 that the residents' exposure doses were higher than the actual results.2-th (e.g. one fifth)1from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity)10-th (e.g. one fifth)1The estimates for the impact on the environment are also very low. The environment has also been severely affected, with cracks, subsidence, and landslides occurring frequently in Moruroa Atoll, and in the long term, the atoll as a whole is likely to experience a major landslide.possibilityThere are also
Against these French nuclear tests, the international environmentNGOGreenpeace, which is a member of the Greenpeace group, had sailed a ship near Moruroa Atoll to protest. However1985In 1949, the Rainbow Warrior, owned by the organization, was taken out of the port of Auckland, New Zealand, by French agents.explosionThis is the reason why the1One person was killed. The ship was planned to head from Auckland to Moruroa Atoll to stage a protest. French authorities initially denied any involvement in the matter, but later that year a British newspaper reported that then-President François Mitterrand had been involved in the bombing plan.approvalThe revelation that he had done so forced the resignation of several top-level members of Mitterrand's cabinet. Among the agents who carried out the case2Man jailed for manslaughter and other charges by New Zealand court10sentenced to two years, but the French government negotiated a1He was released within a year.
Inadequate compensation and movement toward non-nuclear
The damage caused by nuclear testing, as we have seen, is never temporary, but is long-lasting. Radiation exposure can, in the long run, increase the subsequent cancer risk of the HibakushaI know.The Marshall Islands are the only place in the world where the government has not yet established a national park. In fact, in the Marshall Islands,1948Since the year1970Among the residents who lived until 1945, the estimated number of cancers caused by exposure to the atomic bombs is only170 casesoccurred. Also.1986Since the year1994Year.surveyThe risk of liver cancer in the Marshall Islands exposure area is higher than the U.S. average for men by15times that of women.40It was found to be twice as high. Despite this long-term damage, it can be said that adequate compensation has not been provided.1986In the 1949 Free Association Agreement, the U.S. was to provide the Marshall Islands with a1The decision was made to award US$150 million in compensation, which is not enough considering the compensation for cancer damage that will continue to occur.pointing outThe company has been
France also reported that only a small percentage of civilians exposed to the bomb in French Polynesia were63 personsThe only compensation provided to the As background, the French Commission for the Compensation of Victims of Nuclear Tests has been discussing the causal link between radioactive materials generated by nuclear tests and cancer among A-bomb survivors.I don't approve.This is the case. Not only is compensation inadequate, but the French authorities have not even apologized to the victims of the nuclear tests.I didn't.The following is a list of the most common problems with the
In these Pacific Island countries that have been used as testing grounds, there are some positive moves toward non-nuclear weapons. First,1986It came into effect inRarotonga ConventionThe first of these is the "South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone" (NWFZ). The South Pacific is a nuclear-free zone, which comprehensively prohibits the manufacture, acquisition, possession, and testing of nuclear weapons and the dumping of radioactive materials into the ocean within the territory of the signatory states. The background to the conclusion of the treaty is that, as we have seen, many nuclear tests have been conducted in the region, and that the marine environment has been polluted by the dumping of nuclear waste.concernThese included. South Pacific.13The independent state of (*2) All have ratified the treaty. There have also been demonstrations by civilians in the region to end nuclear testing.1995In 1949, the people of the Cook Islands, together with the islanders of Tahitidemonstration paradeand appealed for the cessation of nuclear testing and for peace.
Pacific Island countries have also played an important role in the Nuclear Weapons Convention. At the negotiation sessions of the treaty, the Pacific Island countries actively made statementsI'm out.The Convention is a treaty that is in force from the date of its entry into force. In addition, the entry into force of the Convention will require50ratification of the treaty was required by the three countries, of which10 countriesThe Pacific Island countries account for about 70% of the total.
As we have seen, large-scale nuclear testing in the Pacific Island countries has caused enormous damage to the human body and the environment, and the residents are still suffering from cancer and other diseases. Despite this, the U.S., France, and other countries that conducted the tests underestimated or covered up the damage, and have not provided adequate compensation. On the contrary, there are suspicions that they dared to cause the damage for the purpose of human experimentation. Against the backdrop of this negative history, the Pacific island nations have been forced to conclude treaties banning nuclear weapons, and are actively participating in such treaties.
We will continue to monitor developments to ensure that the victims of nuclear tests are adequately compensated, and we will watch to see that a world without nuclear weapons is realized.
note 1 This unit is mainly used to express the power of nuclear weapons,1Megatons are1of a tona million timesThe total energy of the nuclear weapons dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, is As a rough guide, the total explosive energy of the nuclear weapons dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan was0.037 megatonsThe first time the company was in
2 Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa